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Intellectual Property

The strengthening of the intellectual property rights regime, in particular through the adoption of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is the subject of intense scrutiny and debates in most countries of the world. By providing for minimum levels of protection of intellectual property rights generally based on average OECD levels of protection, TRIPS constitutes a significant challenge to a number of developing countries which have to make significant changes to their legislations to be in compliance.

Some of the fiercest debates concern patents which provide a bundle of time-limited rights to inventors. Patents are deemed to provide necessary incentives for the development of private sector enterprises in areas where patents are granted.

Traditionally most countries have provided strict limitations on the scope of patentability. Patents were, for instance, not available for a 'discovery' (as opposed to an invention) and a number of countries provided restrictions on patentability in specific sectors such as pharmaceuticals. TRIPS now obliges countries to provide patents in all fields of technology. This implies, for instance, that health cannot be excluded from patentability. Furthermore, TRIPS imposes the protection of plant varieties and therefore brings the whole food sector within its purview. TRIPS also introduces with exceptions the patentability of life forms. TRIPS is thus fundamentally linked to the development of the biotechnology industry.

The following publications focus on the international and national legal regimes concerning intellectual property rights and patents in particular. They consider the impact of the strengthening of intellectual property standards on the management of natural resources (environment and intellectual property rights). They also examine the impacts of the introduction of intellectual property rights in agriculture in particular through patents and plant breeders' rights to foster the development agro-biotechnology. Further, they discuss a number of issues related to the protection of traditional knowledge, in particular concentrating on the ways in which traditional knowledge can be protected through existing intellectual property rights such as patents and indications of geographical indications and through sui generis intellectual property rights systems, including farmers' rights. Finally, several publications, in particular concerning India examine the impacts of the introduction and strengthening of medical patents in developing countries and the implications with respect to the fulfilment of basic health needs.



Books and Edited Books on Intellectual Property

 

Intellectual Property Protection and Sustainable Development

cover
author(s):
P. Cullet
source:
New Delhi: Lexis/Nexis - Butterworths
date: 2005
abstract
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Selected Academic Publications on Intellectual Property

     
Genetic Use Restriction Technologies, Intellectual Property Rights and Sustainable Development in Eastern and Southern Africa
2015 East African Law Journal 1-23 (2015).
 
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full text   667 [KB]

     
Farmers' Rights in India: Assessing Conceptual and Implementation Issues
4/1 Dehradun Law Review (2012), p. 29.
 
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full text   524 [KB]

     
Human Rights and Intellectual Property Protection in the TRIPS Era
29/2 Human Rights Quarterly (2007), p. 403-30
 
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full text   171 [KB]

     
The Current Law of Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge
in S. Biber-Klemm & T. Cottier eds, Rights to Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge: Basic Issues and Perspectives (Wallingford: CABI, 2006) p. 56-111.
 
abstract

full text   297 [KB]

     
Intellectual Property Rights, Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge
in S. Biber-Klemm & T. Cottier eds, Rights to Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge: Basic Issues and Perspectives (Wallingford: CABI, 2006) p. 112-154.
 
abstract

full text   255 [KB]

     
Flanking Policies in National and International Law
in S. Biber-Klemm & T. Cottier eds, Rights to Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge: Basic Issues and Perspectives (Wallingford: CABI, 2006) p. 239-279.
 
abstract

full text   244 [KB]

     
New Collective Policies
in S. Biber-Klemm & T. Cottier eds, Rights to Plant Genetic Resources and Traditional Knowledge: Basic Issues and Perspectives (Wallingford: CABI, 2006) p. 283-323.
 
abstract

full text   231 [KB]

     
Monsanto v Schmeiser: A Landmark Decision concerning Farmer Liability and Transgenic Contamination
17 Journal of Environmental Law (2005), p. 83
 
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full text   170 [KB]

     
Seeds Regulation, Food Security and Sustainable Development
40/32 Economic & Political Weekly (6 August 2005)
 
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full text   52 [KB]

     
Intellectual Property Rights and Biodiversity Management: The Case of India
4/1 Global Environmental Politics (2004), p. 97
 
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full text   162 [KB]

     
Intellectual Property Rights and Food Security in the South
7/3 Journal of World Intellectual Property (2004), p.261
 
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full text   1881 [KB]

     
Community, Farmers' and Breeders' Rights in Africa: Towards a Legal Framework for Sui Generis Legislation
University of Nairobi Law Journal (2003), p. 120
 
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full text   419 [KB]

     
Patents and Medicines: The Relationship Between TRIPS and the Human Right to Health
79 International Affairs (2003), p.139
 
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full text   100 [KB]

     
Plant Variety Protection and Farmers' Rights - Towards a Broader Understanding
24 Delhi Law Review 2002 (2003), p.41
 
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full text   334 [KB]

     
Amended Patents Act and Access to Medicines after Doha
37/24 Economic and Political Weekly (2002), p. 2278
 
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full text   41 [KB]

     
Property Rights over Biological Resources – India’s Proposed Legislative Framework
4 Journal of World Intellectual Property (2001), p. 211
 
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full text   1304 [KB]

     
Plant Variety Protection in Africa: Towards Compliance with the TRIPS Agreement
45/1 Journal of African Law (2001), p. 97
 
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full text   162 [KB]

     
Property Rights Regimes over Biological Resources
19 Environment and Planning C: Government and Policy (2001), p. 651
 
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full text   137 [KB]

     
Himayat At-tanawu Al-beaei Fi Afriqya Nahuw At-tawafuq Maa Etifaqyat At-TRIPS
Arabic translation of: Plant Variety Protection in Africa – Towards Compliance with the TRIPS Agreement, 45/1 Journal of African Law (2001), p. 97
 
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full text   404 [KB]

     
Patents Bill, TRIPS and the Right to Health
36/43 Economic and Political Weekly (2001), p. 4049
 
abstract

full text   44 [KB]

     
Revision of the TRIPS Agreement Concerning the Protection of Plant Varieties: Lessons from India Concerning the Development of a Sui Generis System
2 Journal of World Intellectual Property (1999), p. 617
 
abstract

full text   2534 [KB]

     
Patents and Development
in Yash Vyas et al. eds., Law and Development in the Third World (Nairobi: Faculty of Law - University of Nairobi, 1994), pp. 412
 
abstract

full text   250 [KB]

Working Papers on Intellectual Property

Intellectual Property Protection in Africa: An Assessment of the Status of Laws, Research and Policy Analysis on Intellectual Property Rights in South Africa

       
   
full text    524 [KB]

Intellectual Property Protection in Africa: An Assessment of the Status of Laws, Research and Policy Analysis on Intellectual Property Rights in Kenya

       
   
full text    635 [KB]

International Property Protection and Sustainable Development - Towards a Common African Institutional Framework and Strategy

       
   
full text    450 [KB]

Human Rights and Intellectual Property Rights: Need for a New Perspective

       
   
full text    239 [KB]

Food Security and Intellectual Property Rights in Developing Countries

       
   
full text    652 [KB]

Sécurité alimentaire et droits de propriété intellectuelle dans les pays en développement

       
   
full text    192 [KB]

Traditional Knowledge, Genetic Resources and Intellectual Propery Protection: Towards a New International Regime

       
   
full text    317 [KB]

Other Contributions on Intellectual Property

 

The International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (2003)

 

The International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants (UPOV) (2003)

 

Plant Variety Protection: Patents, Plant Breeders' Rights & Sui Generis Systems (2003)

 

The Doha Declaration of the WTO and Access to Medicines (2002)

 

The Patents Amendment Act and Access to Medicines (2002)

 

Intellectual Property and Environment: Impacts of the TRIPS Agreement on Environmental Law Making in India (2002)

 

Access to Drugs and the Patents Bill (2001)

 

Farmers' Rights in Peril (2000)

 

For an Alternative Patents Regime (1999)